Category Archives: history

Farewell Speech

Watched Obama’s Farewell Speech:

Our Constitution is a remarkable, beautiful gift. But it’s really just a piece of parchment. It has no power on its own. We, the people, give it power – with our participation, and the choices we make. Whether or not we stand up for our freedoms. Whether or not we respect and enforce the rule of law. America is no fragile thing. But the gains of our long journey to freedom are not assured.

In his own farewell address, George Washington wrote that self-government is the underpinning of our safety, prosperity, and liberty, but “from different causes and from different quarters much pains will be taken…to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth;” that we should preserve it with “jealous anxiety;” that we should reject “the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties” that make us one.

We weaken those ties when we allow our political dialogue to become so corrosive that people of good character are turned off from public service; so coarse with rancor that Americans with whom we disagree are not just misguided, but somehow malevolent. We weaken those ties when we define some of us as more American than others; when we write off the whole system as inevitably corrupt, and blame the leaders we elect without examining our own role in electing them.

It falls to each of us to be those anxious, jealous guardians of our democracy; to embrace the joyous task we’ve been given to continually try to improve this great nation of ours. Because for all our outward differences, we all share the same proud title: Citizen.

Ultimately, that’s what our democracy demands. It needs you. Not just when there’s an election, not just when your own narrow interest is at stake, but over the full span of a lifetime. If you’re tired of arguing with strangers on the internet, try to talk with one in real life. If something needs fixing, lace up your shoes and do some organizing. If you’re disappointed by your elected officials, grab a clipboard, get some signatures, and run for office yourself. Show up. Dive in. Persevere. Sometimes you’ll win. Sometimes you’ll lose. Presuming a reservoir of goodness in others can be a risk, and there will be times when the process disappoints you. But for those of us fortunate enough to have been a part of this work, to see it up close, let me tell you, it can energize and inspire. And more often than not, your faith in America – and in Americans – will be confirmed.

Suttree

Suttree influences

from books-and-movies-that-influenced-the-writing-of-suttree thread at http://www.cormacmccarthy.com

Davis Grubbs

Night of the Hunter

George Washington Harris

Sut Lovingood: Yarns Spun By a Nat’ral Born Durn’d Fool

William Faulkner

Sutpen in Absalom, Absalom! and The Reivers

William Shakespeare

(influences liked by Faulkner) Falstaff, Prince Hal, Nick Bottom, Mercutio, Huck Finn, Jim

Falstaff at Herne’s Oak, from “The Merry Wives of Windsor,” Act V, Scene v, James Stephanoff, 1832. Via Wikimedia.

Scene from A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1848-1851). Titania and Bottom. Edwin Henry Landseer (1802–1873). Via Wikimedia.

Joseph Conrad

Dante Alighieri

James Joyce

Ulysses

Nelson Algren

The Neon Wilderness and A Walk on the Wild Side

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Walt Whitman

T.S. Eliot

W. B. Yeats

John Keats

Hermann Hesse

Siddhartha

Mark Twain

Huckleberry Finn

Herman Melville

H. L. Mencken

(Henry Louis Mencken) See The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche (1907)

Scopes Trial (1925)

The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes/The Scopes Monkey Trial and Tennessee’s Butler Act. (On human evolution)

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books 2016

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Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol. New York: Bantam, 2009. Print. (First ed. 1895)

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Naipaul, V. S. A Bend in the River. New York: Vintage International, 1989. Print. (First ed. 1979)

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Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de. Don Quijote De La Mancha. Madrid: Real Academia Españƒola, 2015. Print. (First ed. 1605)

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Faulkner, William. The Sound and The Fury. New York: Vintage International, 1990. Print. (1984 correction, first ed. 1929)

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Dahl, Roald. Boy: Tales of Childhood. Great Britain: Penguin, 1984. Print.

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Joyce, James. Dubliners. New York: Signet Classics, 2007. Print. (First ed. 1914.)

wwz-DSC_0978

Brooks, Max. World War Z: An Oral History of The Zombie War. New York: Broadway, 2006. Print.

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Aurelius, Marcus. Meditations. New York: Dover Thrift, 2016. (First ed. 1862. Written in the 100s.)

mere-anarchy

Allen, Woody. Mere Anarchy. New York: Random House, 2007. Print.

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Greene, Graham. The Lawless Roads. London: Penguin, 1976. Print. (First Ed. 1939)

everyman-DSC_0768

Roth, Philip. Everyman. New York: Vintage International, 2006.

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Vallejos, Soledad. Trimarco: la mujer que lucha por todas las mujeres. Argentina: Aguilar, 2013. Print.

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Dick, Philip K. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? New York: Del Rey, 1996. (First. ed 1968)

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Guillebeau, Chris. The Happiness of Pursuit: Finding the Quest That Will Bring Purpose to Your Life. New York: Harmony Books, 2014. Print.

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Capote, Truman. In Cold Blood. New York, New York: Signet, 1965.

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Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. London, England: Penguin Classics, 2000. Print. [First ed. 1949.]

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Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Del Rey, 1991. (First Ed. 1953.)

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Covey, Stephen R. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring the Character Ethic. New York, N.Y.: Free Press, 2004. Print. (First ed. 1989).

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Gilbert, Elizabeth. Eat, Pray, Love: One Woman’s Search for Everything Across Italy, India and Indonesia. New York, N.Y.; Penguin, 2007. Print. (First ed. 2006)

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Haddon, Mark. the curious incident of the dog in the night-time. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 2004. Print. (First ed. 2003)

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Orwell, George. Animal Farm. New York, N.Y.: Signet Classics, 1996. Print. (First ed. 1945).

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O’Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. New York, N.Y.: Broadway Books, 1990. Print.

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McCarthy, Cormac. The Gardener’s Son: a screenplay. New York: HarperCollins, 1996. Print.

the-orchard-keeper

McCarthy, Cormac. The Orchard Keeper. New York, N.Y.: Vintage International, 1993. Print. (First ed. 1965).

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Burroughs, William. Naked Lunch. New York, N.Y.: Grove Press, 1966. Print.

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Elam, Kimberly. Geometry of Design: Studies in Proportion and Composition. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2001. Print.

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Friedlander, Gerald. Jewish Fairy Tales. Mineola, NY: Dover, 1997. Print.

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McCarthy, Cormac. Child of God. New York, N.Y.: Vintage International. 1993.

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Hemingway, Ernest. A Moveable Feast. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1973.

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Graysmith, Robert. Zodiac: The Shocking True Story of The Nation’s Most Bizarre Mass Murderer. New York, NY: Berkley, 2007.

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Pirsig, Robert M. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values. New York: Harper Torch, 2006. Print.

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Confucius, and D. C. Lau. The Analects (Lun Yü). Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979. Print.

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Wong, Stanford. Professional Video Poker. La Jolla: Pi Yee Press, 1994. Print.

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Hemingway, Ernest. The Old Man and The Sea. New York: Bantam, 1965. Print.

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LP: San Francisco

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Block, Bruce A. The Visual Story: Creating the Visual Structure of Film, TV and Digital Media. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Focal/Elsevier, 2008. Print.

HenDream

Hwang, Sŏn-mi, Chi-Young Kim, and Nomoco. The Hen Who Dreamed She Could Fly: A Novel. U.S.: Penguin Books, 2013. Print.

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Murakami, Haruki. After the Quake. Trans. Jay Rubin. London: Vintage, 2007. Print.

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Turnbull, Stephen R., and Peter Dennis. Japanese Castles in Korea, 1592-98. Oxford: Osprey, 2007. Print.

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Steinbeck, John. Of Mice and Men. New York: Penguin, 1993. Print.

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Munro, Alice. Dear Life: Stories. New York: Vintage International, 2012. Print.

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Hemingway, Ernest. For Whom the Bell Tolls. New York.: Scribner, 2003. Print.

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Arai, Yoshio (Ed.). Great American Speeches 1775-1965. Tokyo, Japan.: The Hokuseido Press, 1994.

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Biskind, Peter. Star: How Warren Beatty Seduced America. New York: Simon & Schuster. 2011.

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Haruki Murakami. 村上 春樹 Norwegian Wood. (translated by Jay Rubin) 2011. Vintage Open-Market Edition. Published in Japanese in 1987.

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Hawking, Stephen and Leonard Mlodinow. The Grand Design.

the-road-DSC_2418

McCarthy, Cormac. The Road. New York: Vintage International, 2007. Print.

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Neruda, Pablo. Cantos ceremoniales. Buenos Aires: Losada, Tercera edición 23-XI-1977.

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Fitzgerald, F. Scott, and Guy Reynolds. The Great Gatsby. Ware: Wordsworth Classics, 2001. Print.

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McCarthy, Cormac. Suttree. New York. Vintage International. 1992.

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Fisher, Roger, William Ury, and Bruce Patton. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving in. New York: Penguin, 2011. Print.

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Lowell, Ross. Matters of Light & Depth: Creating Memorable Images for Video, Film & Stills through Lighting. Philadelphia: Broad Street, 1992. Print.

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Read: Kerouac, Jack. On the Road. New York, NY, U.S.A.: Penguin, 1991. Print.

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Korean Picture Dictionary

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LP: Thailand: Bangkok, Ko Samet, Ayutthaya

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A Bend in The River

Naipaul, V. S. A Bend in the River. New York: Vintage International, 1989. Print. (First ed. 1979)

“The world is what it is; men who are nothing, who allow themselves to become nothing, have no place in it.” p. 3

“In the darkness of the river and forest you could be sure only of what you could see–made a noise–dipped a paddle in the water–you heard yourself as though you were another person. The river and the forest were like presences, and much more powerful than you.” p. 8

“Zabeth was a magician, and was known in our region as a magician. Her smell was he smell of her protecting ointments. Other women used perfumes and scents to attract; Zabeth’s ointments repelled and warned.” p. 10

“Without Europeans, I feel, all our past would have been washed away, like the scuff marks of fishermen on the beach outside our town.” p. 12

***”All that had happened in the past was washed away; there was always only the present. It was as though, as a result of some disturbance in the heavens, the early morning light was always receding into the darkness, and men lived in a perpetual dawn.” p. 12

“When things went wrong they had the consolations of religion. This wasn’t just a readiness to accept Fate; this was a quiet and profound conviction about the vanity of all human endeavour.” p. 16

“a relisher of life, a seeker after experience” p. 25

“I wondered about the nature of my aspirations, the very supports of my existence; and I began to feel that any life I might have anywhere–however rich and successful and better furnished–would only be a version of the life I lived now.” p. 42

**”Always, sailing up from the south, from beyond the bend in the river, were clumps of water hyacinths, dark floating islands on the dark river, bobbing over the rapids. It was as if rain and river were tearing away bush from the heart of the continent and floating it down to the ocean, incalculable miles away… Night and day the water hyacinth floated up from the south, seeding itself as if travelled.” p. 46

Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth)

“They said they were poor and wanted money to continue their studies. Some of these beggars were bold, coming straight to me and reciting their requests; the shy ones hung around until there was no one else in the shop. Only a few had bothered to prepare stories, and these stories were like Ferdinand’s: a father dead or far away, a mother in a village, an unprotected boy full of ambition… The guilelessness, the innocence that wasn’t innocence–I thought it could be traced back to Ferdinand, his interpretation of our relationship and his idea of what I could be used for.” p. 55

“The people here were malins the way a dog chasing a lizard was malins because they lived with the knowledge of men as prey.” p. 56

“Every carving, every mask, served a specific religious purpose, and could only be made once. Copies were copies; there was no magical feeling or power in them; and in such copies Father Huismans was not interested. He looked in masks and carvings for a religious quality; without that quality the things were dead and without beauty.” p. 61  

“The first Roman hero, travelling to Italy to found his city, lands on the coast of Africa. The local queen falls in love with him, and it seems that the journey to Italy might be called off. But then the watching gods take a hand; and one of them says that the great Roman god might not approved of a settlement in Africa, of a mingling of peoples there, of treaties of union between Africans and Romans.”  p. 62

Dido and Aeneas, from a Roman fresco, Pompeian Third Style (10 BC – 45 AD), Pompeii, Italy. Via Wikimedia.

 See Dido and Aeneas

Read Aeneid by Virgil

Map of Aeneas’ journeys by Rcsprinter123. Via Wikimedia.

“This is Zabeth’s world. This is the world to which she returns when she leaves my shop. But Zabeth’s world was living, and this was dead. That was the effect of those masks lying flat on the shelves, looking up not forest or sky but at the underside of other shelves. They were masks that had been laid low, in more than one way, and had lost their power.” p. 65

“wandering back to the food stalls: little oily heaps of fried flying ants (expensive, and sold by the spoonful) laid out on scraps of newspaper; hairy orange-coloured caterpillars with protuberant eyes wriggling in enamel basins; fat white grubs kept moist and soft in little bags of damp earth, five or six grubs to a bag–these grubs, absorbent in body and of neutral taste, being an all-purpose fatty food, sweet with sweet things, savory with savory things. These were all forest foods, but the villages had been cleaned out of them (grubs came from the heart of a pal tree); and no one wanted to go foraging too far in the forest.” p. 66

“While he lived, Father Huismans, collecting the things of Africa, had been thought a friend of Africa. But now that changed. It was felt that the collection was an affront to African religion… The masks themselves, crumbling n the slatted shelves, seemed to lose the religious power Father Huismans had taught me to see in them; without him, they simply became extravagant objects.” p. 84

“It wasn’t the ice cream that attracted Mahesh. It was the idea of the simple machine, or rather the idea of being the only man in the town to own such a machine… They are dazzled by the machines they import. That is part of their intelligence; but they soon start behaving as though they don’t just own the machines, but the patents as well; they would like to be the only men in the world with such magical instruments.” p. 90

“They didn’t see, these young men, that there was anything to build in their country. As far as they were concerned, it was all there already. They had only to take. They believed that, by being what they were, they had earned the right to take; and the higher the officer, the greater the crookedness–if that word had any meaning.” p. 91

“It seemed as easy as that, if you came late to the world and found ready-made those things that other countries and peoples had taken so long to arrive at–writing, printing, universities, books, knowledge. The rest of us had to take thngs in stages. I thought of my own family, Nazruddin, myself–we were so clogged by what the centuries had deposited in our minds and hearts. Ferdinand, starting from nothing, had with one step made himself free, and was ready to race ahead of us.” p. 102-103

“We lived on the same patch of earth; we looked at the same views. Yet to him the world was new and getting newer. For me that same world was drab, without possibilities.” p. 103

“”Would the honourable visitor state whether he feels that Africans have been depersonalized by Christianity?”
¶Indar did what he had done before. He restated the question. He said, “I suppose you are really asking whether Africa can be served by a religion which is not African. Is Islam an African religion? Do you feel that Africans have been depersonalized by that?”” p. 121

“You are men of the modern world. Do you need African religion? Or are you being sentimental about it? Are you nervous of losing it? Or do you feel you have to hold on to it just because it’s yours?” p. 122

Raymond “I find that the most difficult thing in prose narrative is linking one thing with the other. The link might just be a sentence, or even a word. It sums up what has gone before and prepares one for what is to come.” p. 136

To read A History of Rome by Theodor Mommsen 

Theodor Mommsen. Ludwig Knaus. 1881. Via Wikimedia.

“There may be some parts of the world–dead countries, or secure and by-passed ones–where men can cherish the past and think of passing on furniture and china to their heirs. Men can do that perhaps in Sweden or Canada. Some peasant department of France full of half-wits in châteaux; some crumbling Indian palace-city, or some dead colonial town in a hopeless South American country. Everywhere else men are in movement, the world is in movement, and the past can only cause pain.” p. 141

“But I hadn’t understood to what extent our civilization had also been our prison. I hadn’t understood either to what extent we had been made by the place where we had grown up, made by Africa and the simple life of the coast, and how incapable we had become of understanding the outside world.” p. 142

“But this lady also thought that my education and background made me extraordinary,and I couldn’t fight the idea of my extraordinariness.
¶”An extraordinary man, a man of two worlds, needed an extraordinary job. And she suggested I become a diplomat.” p. 145

“there was the Edgware Road, where the shops and restaurants seemed continually to be changing hands; there were the shops and crowds of Oxford Street and Regent Street. The openness of Trafalgar Square gave me a lift, but it reminded me that I was almost at the end of my journey.” p. 146

“Now I saw differently. And I understood that London wasn’t simply a place that was there, as people say of mountains, but that it had been made by men, that men had given attention to details as minute as those camels.
¶I began to understand at the same time that my anguish about being a man adrift was false, that for me that dream of home and security was nothing more than a dream of isolation, anachronistic and stupid and very feeble. I belonged to myself alone.” p. 151

“We solace ourselves with that idea of the great men of our tribe, the Gandhi and the Nehru, and we castrate ourselves. ‘Here, take my manhood and invest it for me. Take my manhood and be a greater man yourself, for my sake!’ No! I want to be a man myself.” p. 152

“The job is thee, waiting. But it doesn’t exist for you or anyone else until you discover it, and you discover it because it’s for you and you alone.” p. 153

“These three people were in many ways alike–renegades, concerned with their personal beauty, finding in that beauty the easiest form of dignity.” p. 157

“Rustic manners, forest manners, in a setting not of the forest. But that was how, in our ancestral lands, we all began–the prayer may on the sand, then the marble floor of a mosque; the rituals and taboos of nomads, which transferred to the palace of a sultan or a maharaja, become the traditions of an aristocracy.” p. 161

“In spite of the corrupt physical ways our passion had begun to take, the photographs of Yvette that I preferred were the chastest. I was especially interested in those of her as a girl in Belgium, to whom the future was still a mystery.” p. 184

“The businessman bought at ten and was happy to get out at twelve; the mathematician saw his ten rise to eighteen, but didn’t sell because he wanted to double his ten to twenty.” p. 198

“Uganda was beautiful, fertile, easy, without poverty, and with high African traditions. It ought to have had a future, but the problem with Uganda was that it wasn’t big enough. The country was now too small for its tribal hatreds.” p. 200-201

Shoba and Mahesh “Acid on the face of the woman, the killing of the man–they were the standard family threats on these occasions,” p. 203

“”You can hire them, but you can’t buy them.” It was one of his sayings; it meant that stable relationships were not possible here, that there could only be day-to-day contracts between men, that in a crisis peace was something you had to buy afresh every day.” p. 210

“We came down slowly, leaving the upper light. Below the heavy cloud Africa showed as a dark-green, wet-looking land. You could see that it was barely dawn down there; in the forests and creeks it would still be quite dark.” p. 247

“The water hyacinths, “the new thing in the river,” beginning so far away, in the centre of the continent, bucked past in clumps and tangles and single vines, here almost at the end of their journey.” p. 249

“If there was a plan, these events had meaning. If there was law, these events had meaning. But there was no plan; there was no law; this was only make-believe, play, a waste of men’s time in the world. And how often here, even in the days of bush, it must have happened before, this game of warders and prisoners in which men could be destroyed for nothing. I remembered what Raymond used to say–about events being forgotten, lost, swallowed up.” p. 267

“The searchlight lit up the barge passengers, who, behind bars and wire guards, as yet scarcely seemed to understand that they were adrift. Then there were gunshots. The searchlight was turned off; the barge was no longer to be seen. The steamer started up again and moved without lights down the river, away from the area of battle. The air would have been full of moths and flying insects. The searchlight, while it was on, had shown thousands, white in the white light.
¶July 1977-August 1978″ p. 278

 

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EL Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Qvixote de La Mancha (primera parte) I

Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de. Don Quijote De La Mancha: Edición Conmemorativa IV Centenario Cervantes. Madrid: Real Academia Españƒola, 2015. Print. (First ed. 1605)

Siglo de Oro

“Salieron para America cientos de ejemplares de la novela… Lo que no había conseguido Cervantes, lo lograba su criatura asentándose en el Nuevo Mundo.” (México -> Cartagena de Indias -> Portobelo, Panamá -> El Callao) p. xi

To Watch Дон Кихот Don Quixote (1957) Grigori Kozintsev.

 

José Ortega y Gasset Meditaciones del Quijote “su eje central es precisamente el diálogo,” p. xxi  See “Yo soy yo y mi circunstancia”

“complejidad del sistema novelístico de Cervantes y sus estrategias para casar versímilmente su fábula mentirosa con la inteligencia de sus lectores están poderosamente condicionadas por la encrucijada en la que, como también Shakespeare y todos sus contemporáneos, se encuentra: la del solapamineto de la la galaxia Gutenberg con la pervivencia, muy vívida todavía, de formas de coexistencia y comunicaión arcaicas en las que sigue muy arraigada la oralidad.” p. p xxii

Quijote “Llegado, por el contrario, a Barcelona, ve en una imprenta cómo se corrigen las pruebas de una nueva edición de Quijote de Avellaneda, y ello le da pie para denostarlo.” p. xxiv

Olfato y tacto en Don Quijote p.  xxvii

Primera edición conocida de Amadís de Gaula de Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo, impresa en Zaragoza por Jorge Coci, 1508. Via Wikimedia.

Amadís de Gaula

Portada de Los cinco libros del esforzado e invencible caballero Tirante el Blanco, primera traducción al castellano de Tirant lo Blanc, impresa por Diego de Gumiel. Via Wikimedia.

Tirante el Blanco

Tristán de Leonís

“Al final, termina por salirse con la suya. La ficción va contaminando lo vivido y la realidad se va gradualmente plegando a las excentricidades y fantasías de don Quijote. p. XXXV (Mario Vargas Llosa, Una novela para el siglo XXI)

“Los amigos del pueblo de don Quijote, tan adversos a las novelerías literarias que hacen una quema inquisitorial de su biblioteca, con el pretexto de curar a Alonso Quijano de su locura recurren a la ficción: urden y protagonizan representaciones para devolver al Caballero de la Triste Figura a la cordura y al mundo real. Pero, en verdad, consiguen lo contrario: que la ficción comience a devorar la realidad.” p. XXXVI (Mario Vargas Llosa, Una novela para el siglo XXI)

Ruta de Don Quijote

“El Quijote no cree que la justicia, el orden social, el progreso, sean funciones de la autoridad, sino obra del quehacer de individuos que, como sus modelos, los caballeros andantes, y él mismo, se hayan echado sobre los hombros la tarea que hacer menos injusto y más libre  próspero el mundo en el que viven.” p. XL (Mario Vargas Llosa, Una novela para el siglo XXI)

“la Santa Hermandad, cuerpo de justicia en el mundo rural, de la que se tiene anuncios durante las correrías de don Quijote y Sancho, son mencionadas más bien como algo lejano, oscuro y peligroso.” p. XL

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“España aparace como un espacio muchi más vasto, cohesionado en su diversidad geográfica y cultural y de unas inciertas fronteras que parecen definirse en función no de territorios y demarcaciones administrativas, sino religiosas: España termina en aquellos límites vagos, y concretamente marinos, donde comienzan los dominios del moro, el enemigo religioso.” p. XLII

“como ocurre con las obras maestras paradigmáticas… al igual que el Hamlet, o La divina comedia, o la Ilíada y la Odisea, ella evoluciona con el paso del tiempo y se recrea a sí misma en función de las estéticas y los valores que cada cultura privilegia, revelendo que es una verdadera caverna de Alí Babá, cuyos tesoros nunca se extienguen.” p. XLIII-XVLIV

To Read

Rayuela by Cortazar,

In Search of Lost Time by Marcel Proust

“Aprovechando lo que era un tópico de la novela de caballerías (muchas de ellas eran supuestos manuscritos encontrados en sitios exóticos y estrafalarios), Cervantes hizo de Cide Hamete Benengeli un dispositivo que introducía la ambigüedad y el juego como rasgos centrales de la estructura narrativa.” p. XLIV

Canto de Calíope en La Galatea

Title page of La Galatea. Via Wikimedia.

“Cervantes, que se vio imposibilitado de hacer efectivas las sumas recogidas, fue internado en la cárcel de Sevilla, donde pasó unos tres meses del año 1597.” p. LXX (Martín de Riquer, Cervantes y el “Quijote”)

“En 1613 aparecen las Novelas ejemplares; en 1614 el Viaje del Parnaso; en 1615 la Segunda parte del Quijote y las COmedia y entremeses; y en 1617, póstumamente, el Persiles y Sigismunda. O sea que la gran época de aparición de las obras de Cervantes, presciendiendo de la Primera parte del Quijote, corresponder a la etapa que va de los 66 a los 68 años del escritor.” p. LXXI (Martín de Riquer, Cervantes y el “Quijote”)

“Aunque Cervantes ha escrito estos versos en tono humurístico, no deja de haber en ellos cierta amargura de quien, sabiéndose un gran prosista, comprende que no puede compararse con los grandes poetas de su tiempo.” p. LXXIII (Martín de Riquer, Cervantes y el “Quijote”)

“Fue enterrado en el convento de las Trinitarias Descalzas de la calle de Cantarranas (hoy Lope de Vega), donde sin duda esposan todavía sys restos sin que haya posibilidad de identificarlos.” p. LXXVIII (Martín de Riquer, Cervantes y el “Quijote”)

“En el Quijote Cervantes recoge la experiencia de los recuerdos de su vida; en el Persiles recoge el fruto de sis lecturas de libros.” p. LXXIX (Martín de Riquer, Cervantes y el “Quijote”)

“El “caballero andante” existió, y todavía erraba por los caminos de Europa y de corte en corte en demanda de aventuras (justas, pasos de armas, torneos, batallas a todo trance) un siglo antes de que Cervantes se pusiera a escribir el Quijote. Y alrededor de estos caballeros existió una literatura que puede distribuirse en dos categorías: la biografía del caballero y la novela caballeresca. Como ejemplos de la primera categoría tenemos el Livre des faits du bon messire Jean le Maingre, dit Bouciquaut, el Livre des faits de Jacques de Lalaing y el Victorial, o biografía de don Pero Niño, y podriamos añadir el Libro del Passo Honroso… A la segunda categoría pertenecen determinadas novelas … Las catalanas Curial e Güelfa y Tirant lo Blanch y las francesas Jean de Saintré y el Roman de Jean de Paris… Basta señalar que la biografía de un caballero perfectamente histórico como fue Jacques de Lalaing, que realizó sus primeras hazañas en Vallodolid, ofrece gran similitud con la novela que tiene por protagonista al ficticio Jean de Saintré.. Este tipo de novelas a las que conviene dar el nombre de “novelas caballescas” en clara oposición a los “libros de caballerías”, fue comprendido por Cervantes, como atestigua su elogio del Tirant lo Blanch” p. LXXXIV (Martín de Riquer, Cervantes y el “Quijote”)

“El Quijote no es, como creyeron algunos románticos, una burla del heroísmo y del idealismo noble, sino la burla de unos libros que, por sus extremosas exageraciones y su falta de mesura, ridiculizaban lo heroico y lo ideal.” p. LXXXV (Martín de Riquer, Cervantes y el “Quijote”)

“Da la impresión que Certantes escribía sin leer su labor.” p. LXXXVIII (Martín de Riquer, Cervantes y el “Quijote”)

“Cervantes, cuando escribe la Segunda parte de la novela, tiene ya sesenta y ocho años, está en la miseria, ha padecido desdichas de toda suerte en la guerra y en el cautiverio, el honor de su hogar no ha sido siempre limpio ni ejemplar, ha recibido humillaciones y burlas en el cruel ambiente literario; y a pesar de todo ello, por encima de sus angustias, de sus estrecheces y de sus penas, el buen humor y el agudo donaire inundan las páginas del Quijote. p. XCIII (Martín de Riquer, Cervantes y el “Quijote”)

“la más desdichada de tales transposiciones fue que la supresión de unas páginas en que se narraba cómo Sancho Panza perdió a si jumento no llevó aneja la eliminación de la referencias al escudero montado en el asno” p. CII (Francisco Rico, Nota al texto)

“endecasílabo) El ingenioso hidalgo de la Mancha.” p. CIV (Francisco Rico, Nota al texto)

“Téngase en cuenta que los libros se ponían entonces a la venta “en papel”, es decir, como un conjunto de pliegos sin encuadernar, y así serían los Quijotes que Cervantes tuviera a mano a principios de 1605.” p. CXI (Francisco Rico, Nota al texto)

“Tras un corto período de gran éxito, la novela sufre un eclipse desde 167 hasta que la devuelve al mercado la edición de Madrid, 1636-1637, cuatro o conco veces reimpresa en la Corte en los decenios siguientes,” p. CXII (Francisco Rico, Nota al texto)

“vacilaciones presentes en los escritos de puño y letra de Cervantes.” mesmo~mismo, cuasi~casi, fee~fe, escrebir~escribir invidia~envidia, sospiro~suspiro, asconder~esconder, húmido~húmedo, imágines~imágenes, proprio~propio, recebir~recibir, esaminador~examinador, eceto~exepto, agora~ahora, ansí~así, güésped~huésped, deste~de este, della~de ella.  CXV-CXVI (Francisco Rico, Nota al texto)

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Nobel Laureates 1980-1984

Jaroslav Seifert 1984

Czechoslovakia/Austria-Hungary (poetry)

Deštník z Picadilly

William Golding 1983

UK (novel/poetry/drama)

Lord of the FliesThe InheritorsFree Fall

Gabriel García Márquez 1982

Colombia (novel/short story)

Cien años de soledadCrónica de una muerte anunciadaEl coronel no tiene quien le escriba

Elias Canetti 1981

UK/Bulgaria (drama/novel/essay)

Crowds and Power, Auto-da-Fé

Czesław Miłosz 1980

Poland (poetry/essay)

Wiersze ostatnieKról Popiel i inne wierszeHymn o Perle

Nobel Laureates 1989-1985

Camilo José Cela 1989

Spain (novel/short story) (see Generacion del 36 and tremendismo)

The Family of Pascual Duarte (La familia de Pascual Duarte), La colmenaSan Camilo, 1936 

نجيب محفوظ‎‎  Naguib Mahfouz 1988

Egypt (novel/short story/screenplay)

ثلاثية القاهرة The Cairo Trilogy (Palace Walk بين القصرين, Palace of Desire قصر الشوق, Sugar Street السكرية [Novels named after actual streets in Cairo,])

Ио́сиф Алекса́ндрович Бро́дский Joseph Brodsky 1987

US/Soviet Union (poetry/essay)

Less Than One: Selected EssaysCollected Poems in English, 1972–1999, To Urania : Selected Poems, 1965–1985

Akinwándé Oluwolé Babátúndé Sóyinká Wole Soyinka 1986

Nigeria (drama/novel/poetry)

Season of AnomyThe InterpretersDeath and the King’s Horseman

Claude Simon 1985

France/Madagascar (novel)

La Route des FlandresHistoireL’Acacia

Nobel Laureates 1994-1990

大江 健三郎 Kenzaburō Ōe 1994

Japan (novel)

Work: 個人的な体験 A Personal Matter, 万延元年のフットボール The Silent Cry

Toni Morrison 1993

US (novel)

Work: The Bluest EyeBelovedSong of Solomon

Derek Walcott 1992

Santa Lucia (poetry/drama)

Work: Dream on Monkey Mountain, Omeros,  

Nadine Gordimer 1991

South Africa (novel/short story)

Work: The ConservationistBurger’s DaughterJuly’s People

Octavio Paz 1990

Mexico (poetry/essay)

Work: Piedra de solSalamandraEl laberinto de la soledadVislumbres de la India