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ca. 1560-1600 ---  by Santi di Tito --- Image by © Archivo Iconografico, S.A./CORBIS

Machiavelli’s The Prince

Podcast: Machiavelli: Nigel Warburton and Prof. Quentin Skinner

Machiavelli’s The Prince

The Prince as a centaur:

“He says that the ancients understood state craft better, when they figured The Prince as a centaur. The centaur is half man and half beast, and that’s what it is to understand state craft. Manly virtue will never be enough, you’ve got to be ready for beastliness, and the centaur is half beast. Now, that is presented directly as a satire of Cicero.”- Prof. Skinner

Cicero: the fox and the lion

“Cicero had said, ‘Force is beastly and is to be avoided, that is simply the lion. Fraud is beastly and that is to be avoided, that is simply the fox’. And Machiavelli says, ‘Since you need to know how to be beastly, you had better know which particular beasts to imitate, and then in the most famous phrase in the book he says, ‘Those who have done best as princes in our time have known how to imitate the lion and the fox’.” – Prof. Skinner

‘You’re going to have to cheat, you must do your best to appear not to be cheating’, and that again is satirical in respect of Cicero’s De Officiis, because one of the things which Cicero keeps telling us is, ‘Fraud will always be found out. So you cannot gain true glory by pretence’, I’m now quoting Cicero, ‘because your pretences will always find you out’ And that becomes a biblical thought too. ‘Be sure your sins will find you out’. Now, one of the most important things that Machiavelli wants to tell The Prince is not to worry about that, because it’s not true. And he’s very keen on the fact that The Prince is not performing his politics in republican conditions. In republican conditions, you’re out in the piazza, everyone has a vote, it’s all public. People are watching you. You’ve only been elected, their turn will come, it’s a communal activity, everything is in the bright light of day. It’s not so for The Prince.” – Prof. Skinner

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From Chapters 15-24 “‘Be courageously evil where it’s necessary to be evil, but otherwise follow what people regard as the virtues as much as possible. Because if you don’t, they’ll hate you, and if they hate you, you’re in trouble’. -Prof. Skinner

Illustration of Othello and Iago. Charles and Mary Lamb, Tales from Shakespeare (Philadelphia: Henry Altemus Company, 1901). Via Wikimedia.

See Shakespeare’s Iago

The Prince as a critique of Seneca‘s ‘De Clementia’, ‘De Beneficiis’ ‘concerning benefits’, and Cicero’s De Officiis, Concerning One’s Offices.

La muerte de Séneca. 1871. Manuel Domínguez Sánchez. Museo de Prado, Madrid. El título completo dado por el pintor fue: Séneca, después de abrirse las venas, se mete en un baño y sus amigos, poseídos de dolor, juran odio a Nerón que decretó la muerte de su maestro. Via Wikimedia.

La fortuna

Essarai non buono

“Machiavelli does himself say at one point in Chapter 15 – this pivotal and notorious chapter where he introduces the virtuoso prince who is not always virtuous. He says ‘I’m teaching you that sometimes you must learn, how not to be good’, and it’s interesting he doesn’t say there, virtuoso, he says buono, a good person. ‘Essarai non buono’ – how not to be a good person.”” – Prof. Skinner

Salus populi suprema lex esto (The health of the people should be the supreme law) from Cicero’s De Legibus.

Machiavellian morality vs. Christian morality and classical morality.

“If you’re a prince, you need to go against conventional Christian or classical morality, if you’re an ordinary person, perhaps, you may want to carry on according to Christian or classical morality.” -Prof. Skinner

Read:

Isaiah Berlin’s essay The Originality of Machiavelli

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King Lear (I)

Shakespeare, William, and Stanley Wells. The History of King Lear. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2008. Print.

 

To read:

Prometheus Vinctus by Aeschylus

Dirck van Baburen – Prometheus Being Chained by Vulcan. circa 1594/1595–1624). Via Wikimedia.

Introduction by Stanley Wells

“The folio is, after all, a derivative, adapted, and edited text.” p. 8

“Muir, however, notes eclipses of both sun and moon in 1601 ‘that would still be remembered by the audience’, and there was a partial eclipse of the moon in May 1603.” p. 12

Titus Andronicus he had already portrayed an elderly tyrant who goes mad” p. 14

To Read:

The Theme of the Three Caskets by Sigmund Freud

“proposes that the opening scene is based on an ancient myth of a man’s having to choose among three women, the third one represents death. footnote p. 16

Historia regum Britanniae

“written by the learned and imaginative monk Geoffrey of Monmouth” p. 17

Illumination of a 15th century manuscript of Historia Regum Britanniae showing king of the Britons Vortigern and Ambros watching the fight between two dragons. Via Wikimedia.

Gonorilla to the Duke of Cornwall, Regan to the Duke of Albania, or Albany, the northern part of Britain. Later Aganipus, King of the Franks, married the dowerless Cordeilla for love.” p. 17

Cordelia. 1888. William Frederick Yeames (1835–1918). Via Wikimedia.

Edwin Austin Abbey (1852–1911) King Lear, Cordelia’s Farewell. Metropolitan Museum of Art – New York, NY . Via Wikimedia.

“Aganippus raised an army to restore him to his kingdom; they succeeded, and three years later Lear died. (By this time he must have been very old indeed.) Cordeilla, widowed, buried her father at Leicester. Some years later her nephews rebelled against her, captured her, and put her in prison, where she committed suicide.” p. 17

to read:

Arcadia by Sir Philip Sidney

“In reading it, Shakespeare must have been struck by the relation between the Lear story and the episodes in Arcadia telling of a Paphlagonian king deposed and blinded by a wicked, illegitimate son but cherished by the natural son whom, under the influence of the bastard, he has cast off with orders-not obeyed-that he be killed.” p. 26

“Shakespeare is indebted to Arcadia for plot motifs and atmospheric effects rather than for language.” p. 26

“The Bible exerted a strong influence, even though Shakespeare has been at pains to locate his action in a non-Christian, pagan society; indeed, both the Book of Job and the parable of the Prodigal Son have been regarded as deep sources of the play.” p. 29

George Orwell essay: Lear, Tolstoy and the Fool.” p. 32

Tolstoy on Shakespeare wikipedia article

Tolstoy on Shakespeare; a critical essay on Shakespeare

“It might on the contrary be argued that Shakespeare’s opening scene is a masterpiece of dramatic exposition-almost a little play in its own right-and that its reduction and simplification of motive is one of the ways in which it establishes a mode in which symbol and emblem will have as important a part to play as psychological verisimilitude.” p. 33

Michael Gambon playing the Fool “That weekend I hurried to London Zoo to watch the chimps and became even more convinced that they had all the requisite qualities for the Fool-manic comic energy when in action, a disturbing sadness when in repose.” p. 42

“But the suffering diminishes when madness comes upon him. As Gloucester is to realize later in the play, madness can bring relief from suffering.” p. 45

footnote Howard Felperin “takes a contrary view: Gloucester ‘naïvely wishes he could go made like Lear, mistaking madness for a protection against pain when it is in fact an exposure to it.” p. 45

“Suffering teaches both men how they have misvalued their offspring, and leads them to acknowledge their own faults and to express humility.” p. 46

José Ribera, Ixion (1632). Oil on canvas, 220 x 301 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid. Via Wikimedia.

See Ixion

literary context of ‘bound upon a wheel of fire‘ p.47

“The Wheel of Fire is part of the Aristotelian reading of a tragedy (e.g. plays), which includes the central flaw within a character.” wikipedia

“To its early audiences, the language of King Lear must have seemed very strange, as original in its day as that of James Joyce or Dylan Thomas in theirs.” p. 53

To read:

Dylan Thomas

poems: Do not go gentle into that good night, and And death shall have no dominion.

Margreta de Grazia “the play itself goes to extremes, pushing beyond the bounds of tragedy, particularly in its superfluous addition of Cordelia’s death.” p. 53

“What Tate did to Shakespeare was not essentially different from what Shakespeare had done to King Leir: Shakespeare had turned an old tragicomedy into a tragedy, Tate reversed the process. In doing do created a new, different play which, critics have increasingly argued, has its own artistic validity.” p. 62

King Leir play

Nahum Tate‘s King Lear adaptation

“But at the time Tate wrote, Shakespeare was not thought of as an immortal classic, but as a dramatist whose works, however admirable, required adaptation to fit them for the new theatrical and social circumstances of the time, as well as to changes in taste.” p. 62

Tate’s play “supplanted Shakespeare’s play in every performance given from 1681 to 1838.” p. 63

King Lear in the Tempest Tearing off his Robes. George Romney (1734-1802). Via wikiart.org

See John Runciman (1744-68), King Lear in the Storm (1767)

See Alexander Runciman (1736-85) King Lear on the Heath (1767)

“Barker insists that the storm is not in itself ‘dramatically important, only in its effect upon Lear’, and that the actor should ‘impersonate both Lear and-reflected in Lear-the storm’.” p. 72

King Lear (1970) Grigori Kozintsev

The Tale of Lear (1984) Tadashi Suzuki

King Lear (1987) Jean-Luc Godard

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King Lear (1971) Peter Brook

 

King Lear (1983) Michael Elliott

A king Lear of the Steppes (1870) Turgenev

King Lear’s Wife (1915/1920) Gordon Bottomley

Lear (1971) Edward Bond

Book: A Thousand Acres (1991) Jane Smiley

“The language of Shakespeare’s time was permeated by the Bible.” p. 87

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books 2016

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Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol. New York: Bantam, 2009. Print. (First ed. 1895)

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Naipaul, V. S. A Bend in the River. New York: Vintage International, 1989. Print. (First ed. 1979)

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Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de. Don Quijote De La Mancha. Madrid: Real Academia Españƒola, 2015. Print. (First ed. 1605)

sound-fury-DSC_0999

Faulkner, William. The Sound and The Fury. New York: Vintage International, 1990. Print. (1984 correction, first ed. 1929)

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Dahl, Roald. Boy: Tales of Childhood. Great Britain: Penguin, 1984. Print.

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Joyce, James. Dubliners. New York: Signet Classics, 2007. Print. (First ed. 1914.)

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Brooks, Max. World War Z: An Oral History of The Zombie War. New York: Broadway, 2006. Print.

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Aurelius, Marcus. Meditations. New York: Dover Thrift, 2016. (First ed. 1862. Written in the 100s.)

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Allen, Woody. Mere Anarchy. New York: Random House, 2007. Print.

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Greene, Graham. The Lawless Roads. London: Penguin, 1976. Print. (First Ed. 1939)

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Roth, Philip. Everyman. New York: Vintage International, 2006.

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Vallejos, Soledad. Trimarco: la mujer que lucha por todas las mujeres. Argentina: Aguilar, 2013. Print.

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Dick, Philip K. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? New York: Del Rey, 1996. (First. ed 1968)

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Guillebeau, Chris. The Happiness of Pursuit: Finding the Quest That Will Bring Purpose to Your Life. New York: Harmony Books, 2014. Print.

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Capote, Truman. In Cold Blood. New York, New York: Signet, 1965.

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Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. London, England: Penguin Classics, 2000. Print. [First ed. 1949.]

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Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Del Rey, 1991. (First Ed. 1953.)

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Covey, Stephen R. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring the Character Ethic. New York, N.Y.: Free Press, 2004. Print. (First ed. 1989).

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Gilbert, Elizabeth. Eat, Pray, Love: One Woman’s Search for Everything Across Italy, India and Indonesia. New York, N.Y.; Penguin, 2007. Print. (First ed. 2006)

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Haddon, Mark. the curious incident of the dog in the night-time. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 2004. Print. (First ed. 2003)

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Orwell, George. Animal Farm. New York, N.Y.: Signet Classics, 1996. Print. (First ed. 1945).

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O’Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. New York, N.Y.: Broadway Books, 1990. Print.

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McCarthy, Cormac. The Gardener’s Son: a screenplay. New York: HarperCollins, 1996. Print.

the-orchard-keeper

McCarthy, Cormac. The Orchard Keeper. New York, N.Y.: Vintage International, 1993. Print. (First ed. 1965).

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Burroughs, William. Naked Lunch. New York, N.Y.: Grove Press, 1966. Print.

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Elam, Kimberly. Geometry of Design: Studies in Proportion and Composition. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2001. Print.

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Friedlander, Gerald. Jewish Fairy Tales. Mineola, NY: Dover, 1997. Print.

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McCarthy, Cormac. Child of God. New York, N.Y.: Vintage International. 1993.

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Hemingway, Ernest. A Moveable Feast. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1973.

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Graysmith, Robert. Zodiac: The Shocking True Story of The Nation’s Most Bizarre Mass Murderer. New York, NY: Berkley, 2007.

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Pirsig, Robert M. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values. New York: Harper Torch, 2006. Print.

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Confucius, and D. C. Lau. The Analects (Lun Yü). Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979. Print.

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Wong, Stanford. Professional Video Poker. La Jolla: Pi Yee Press, 1994. Print.

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Hemingway, Ernest. The Old Man and The Sea. New York: Bantam, 1965. Print.

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LP: San Francisco

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Block, Bruce A. The Visual Story: Creating the Visual Structure of Film, TV and Digital Media. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Focal/Elsevier, 2008. Print.

HenDream

Hwang, Sŏn-mi, Chi-Young Kim, and Nomoco. The Hen Who Dreamed She Could Fly: A Novel. U.S.: Penguin Books, 2013. Print.

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Murakami, Haruki. After the Quake. Trans. Jay Rubin. London: Vintage, 2007. Print.

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Turnbull, Stephen R., and Peter Dennis. Japanese Castles in Korea, 1592-98. Oxford: Osprey, 2007. Print.

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Steinbeck, John. Of Mice and Men. New York: Penguin, 1993. Print.

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Munro, Alice. Dear Life: Stories. New York: Vintage International, 2012. Print.

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Hemingway, Ernest. For Whom the Bell Tolls. New York.: Scribner, 2003. Print.

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Arai, Yoshio (Ed.). Great American Speeches 1775-1965. Tokyo, Japan.: The Hokuseido Press, 1994.

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Biskind, Peter. Star: How Warren Beatty Seduced America. New York: Simon & Schuster. 2011.

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Haruki Murakami. 村上 春樹 Norwegian Wood. (translated by Jay Rubin) 2011. Vintage Open-Market Edition. Published in Japanese in 1987.

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Hawking, Stephen and Leonard Mlodinow. The Grand Design.

the-road-DSC_2418

McCarthy, Cormac. The Road. New York: Vintage International, 2007. Print.

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Neruda, Pablo. Cantos ceremoniales. Buenos Aires: Losada, Tercera edición 23-XI-1977.

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Fitzgerald, F. Scott, and Guy Reynolds. The Great Gatsby. Ware: Wordsworth Classics, 2001. Print.

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McCarthy, Cormac. Suttree. New York. Vintage International. 1992.

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Fisher, Roger, William Ury, and Bruce Patton. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving in. New York: Penguin, 2011. Print.

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Lowell, Ross. Matters of Light & Depth: Creating Memorable Images for Video, Film & Stills through Lighting. Philadelphia: Broad Street, 1992. Print.

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Read: Kerouac, Jack. On the Road. New York, NY, U.S.A.: Penguin, 1991. Print.

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Korean Picture Dictionary

Thailand-LP-DSC_1147

LP: Thailand: Bangkok, Ko Samet, Ayutthaya

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A Bend in The River

Naipaul, V. S. A Bend in the River. New York: Vintage International, 1989. Print. (First ed. 1979)

“The world is what it is; men who are nothing, who allow themselves to become nothing, have no place in it.” p. 3

“In the darkness of the river and forest you could be sure only of what you could see–made a noise–dipped a paddle in the water–you heard yourself as though you were another person. The river and the forest were like presences, and much more powerful than you.” p. 8

“Zabeth was a magician, and was known in our region as a magician. Her smell was he smell of her protecting ointments. Other women used perfumes and scents to attract; Zabeth’s ointments repelled and warned.” p. 10

“Without Europeans, I feel, all our past would have been washed away, like the scuff marks of fishermen on the beach outside our town.” p. 12

***”All that had happened in the past was washed away; there was always only the present. It was as though, as a result of some disturbance in the heavens, the early morning light was always receding into the darkness, and men lived in a perpetual dawn.” p. 12

“When things went wrong they had the consolations of religion. This wasn’t just a readiness to accept Fate; this was a quiet and profound conviction about the vanity of all human endeavour.” p. 16

“a relisher of life, a seeker after experience” p. 25

“I wondered about the nature of my aspirations, the very supports of my existence; and I began to feel that any life I might have anywhere–however rich and successful and better furnished–would only be a version of the life I lived now.” p. 42

**”Always, sailing up from the south, from beyond the bend in the river, were clumps of water hyacinths, dark floating islands on the dark river, bobbing over the rapids. It was as if rain and river were tearing away bush from the heart of the continent and floating it down to the ocean, incalculable miles away… Night and day the water hyacinth floated up from the south, seeding itself as if travelled.” p. 46

Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth)

“They said they were poor and wanted money to continue their studies. Some of these beggars were bold, coming straight to me and reciting their requests; the shy ones hung around until there was no one else in the shop. Only a few had bothered to prepare stories, and these stories were like Ferdinand’s: a father dead or far away, a mother in a village, an unprotected boy full of ambition… The guilelessness, the innocence that wasn’t innocence–I thought it could be traced back to Ferdinand, his interpretation of our relationship and his idea of what I could be used for.” p. 55

“The people here were malins the way a dog chasing a lizard was malins because they lived with the knowledge of men as prey.” p. 56

“Every carving, every mask, served a specific religious purpose, and could only be made once. Copies were copies; there was no magical feeling or power in them; and in such copies Father Huismans was not interested. He looked in masks and carvings for a religious quality; without that quality the things were dead and without beauty.” p. 61  

“The first Roman hero, travelling to Italy to found his city, lands on the coast of Africa. The local queen falls in love with him, and it seems that the journey to Italy might be called off. But then the watching gods take a hand; and one of them says that the great Roman god might not approved of a settlement in Africa, of a mingling of peoples there, of treaties of union between Africans and Romans.”  p. 62

Dido and Aeneas, from a Roman fresco, Pompeian Third Style (10 BC – 45 AD), Pompeii, Italy. Via Wikimedia.

 See Dido and Aeneas

Read Aeneid by Virgil

Map of Aeneas’ journeys by Rcsprinter123. Via Wikimedia.

“This is Zabeth’s world. This is the world to which she returns when she leaves my shop. But Zabeth’s world was living, and this was dead. That was the effect of those masks lying flat on the shelves, looking up not forest or sky but at the underside of other shelves. They were masks that had been laid low, in more than one way, and had lost their power.” p. 65

“wandering back to the food stalls: little oily heaps of fried flying ants (expensive, and sold by the spoonful) laid out on scraps of newspaper; hairy orange-coloured caterpillars with protuberant eyes wriggling in enamel basins; fat white grubs kept moist and soft in little bags of damp earth, five or six grubs to a bag–these grubs, absorbent in body and of neutral taste, being an all-purpose fatty food, sweet with sweet things, savory with savory things. These were all forest foods, but the villages had been cleaned out of them (grubs came from the heart of a pal tree); and no one wanted to go foraging too far in the forest.” p. 66

“While he lived, Father Huismans, collecting the things of Africa, had been thought a friend of Africa. But now that changed. It was felt that the collection was an affront to African religion… The masks themselves, crumbling n the slatted shelves, seemed to lose the religious power Father Huismans had taught me to see in them; without him, they simply became extravagant objects.” p. 84

“It wasn’t the ice cream that attracted Mahesh. It was the idea of the simple machine, or rather the idea of being the only man in the town to own such a machine… They are dazzled by the machines they import. That is part of their intelligence; but they soon start behaving as though they don’t just own the machines, but the patents as well; they would like to be the only men in the world with such magical instruments.” p. 90

“They didn’t see, these young men, that there was anything to build in their country. As far as they were concerned, it was all there already. They had only to take. They believed that, by being what they were, they had earned the right to take; and the higher the officer, the greater the crookedness–if that word had any meaning.” p. 91

“It seemed as easy as that, if you came late to the world and found ready-made those things that other countries and peoples had taken so long to arrive at–writing, printing, universities, books, knowledge. The rest of us had to take thngs in stages. I thought of my own family, Nazruddin, myself–we were so clogged by what the centuries had deposited in our minds and hearts. Ferdinand, starting from nothing, had with one step made himself free, and was ready to race ahead of us.” p. 102-103

“We lived on the same patch of earth; we looked at the same views. Yet to him the world was new and getting newer. For me that same world was drab, without possibilities.” p. 103

“”Would the honourable visitor state whether he feels that Africans have been depersonalized by Christianity?”
¶Indar did what he had done before. He restated the question. He said, “I suppose you are really asking whether Africa can be served by a religion which is not African. Is Islam an African religion? Do you feel that Africans have been depersonalized by that?”” p. 121

“You are men of the modern world. Do you need African religion? Or are you being sentimental about it? Are you nervous of losing it? Or do you feel you have to hold on to it just because it’s yours?” p. 122

Raymond “I find that the most difficult thing in prose narrative is linking one thing with the other. The link might just be a sentence, or even a word. It sums up what has gone before and prepares one for what is to come.” p. 136

To read A History of Rome by Theodor Mommsen 

Theodor Mommsen. Ludwig Knaus. 1881. Via Wikimedia.

“There may be some parts of the world–dead countries, or secure and by-passed ones–where men can cherish the past and think of passing on furniture and china to their heirs. Men can do that perhaps in Sweden or Canada. Some peasant department of France full of half-wits in châteaux; some crumbling Indian palace-city, or some dead colonial town in a hopeless South American country. Everywhere else men are in movement, the world is in movement, and the past can only cause pain.” p. 141

“But I hadn’t understood to what extent our civilization had also been our prison. I hadn’t understood either to what extent we had been made by the place where we had grown up, made by Africa and the simple life of the coast, and how incapable we had become of understanding the outside world.” p. 142

“But this lady also thought that my education and background made me extraordinary,and I couldn’t fight the idea of my extraordinariness.
¶”An extraordinary man, a man of two worlds, needed an extraordinary job. And she suggested I become a diplomat.” p. 145

“there was the Edgware Road, where the shops and restaurants seemed continually to be changing hands; there were the shops and crowds of Oxford Street and Regent Street. The openness of Trafalgar Square gave me a lift, but it reminded me that I was almost at the end of my journey.” p. 146

“Now I saw differently. And I understood that London wasn’t simply a place that was there, as people say of mountains, but that it had been made by men, that men had given attention to details as minute as those camels.
¶I began to understand at the same time that my anguish about being a man adrift was false, that for me that dream of home and security was nothing more than a dream of isolation, anachronistic and stupid and very feeble. I belonged to myself alone.” p. 151

“We solace ourselves with that idea of the great men of our tribe, the Gandhi and the Nehru, and we castrate ourselves. ‘Here, take my manhood and invest it for me. Take my manhood and be a greater man yourself, for my sake!’ No! I want to be a man myself.” p. 152

“The job is thee, waiting. But it doesn’t exist for you or anyone else until you discover it, and you discover it because it’s for you and you alone.” p. 153

“These three people were in many ways alike–renegades, concerned with their personal beauty, finding in that beauty the easiest form of dignity.” p. 157

“Rustic manners, forest manners, in a setting not of the forest. But that was how, in our ancestral lands, we all began–the prayer may on the sand, then the marble floor of a mosque; the rituals and taboos of nomads, which transferred to the palace of a sultan or a maharaja, become the traditions of an aristocracy.” p. 161

“In spite of the corrupt physical ways our passion had begun to take, the photographs of Yvette that I preferred were the chastest. I was especially interested in those of her as a girl in Belgium, to whom the future was still a mystery.” p. 184

“The businessman bought at ten and was happy to get out at twelve; the mathematician saw his ten rise to eighteen, but didn’t sell because he wanted to double his ten to twenty.” p. 198

“Uganda was beautiful, fertile, easy, without poverty, and with high African traditions. It ought to have had a future, but the problem with Uganda was that it wasn’t big enough. The country was now too small for its tribal hatreds.” p. 200-201

Shoba and Mahesh “Acid on the face of the woman, the killing of the man–they were the standard family threats on these occasions,” p. 203

“”You can hire them, but you can’t buy them.” It was one of his sayings; it meant that stable relationships were not possible here, that there could only be day-to-day contracts between men, that in a crisis peace was something you had to buy afresh every day.” p. 210

“We came down slowly, leaving the upper light. Below the heavy cloud Africa showed as a dark-green, wet-looking land. You could see that it was barely dawn down there; in the forests and creeks it would still be quite dark.” p. 247

“The water hyacinths, “the new thing in the river,” beginning so far away, in the centre of the continent, bucked past in clumps and tangles and single vines, here almost at the end of their journey.” p. 249

“If there was a plan, these events had meaning. If there was law, these events had meaning. But there was no plan; there was no law; this was only make-believe, play, a waste of men’s time in the world. And how often here, even in the days of bush, it must have happened before, this game of warders and prisoners in which men could be destroyed for nothing. I remembered what Raymond used to say–about events being forgotten, lost, swallowed up.” p. 267

“The searchlight lit up the barge passengers, who, behind bars and wire guards, as yet scarcely seemed to understand that they were adrift. Then there were gunshots. The searchlight was turned off; the barge was no longer to be seen. The steamer started up again and moved without lights down the river, away from the area of battle. The air would have been full of moths and flying insects. The searchlight, while it was on, had shown thousands, white in the white light.
¶July 1977-August 1978″ p. 278

 

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don-quijote-DSC_0993

EL Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Qvixote de La Mancha (primera parte) II

Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de. Don Quijote De La Mancha: Edición Conmemorativa IV Centenario Cervantes. Madrid: Real Academia Española, 2015. Print. (First ed. 1605)

 POST TENEBRAS SPERO LVCEM “Tras las tinieblas espero la luz” Job, XVII, 12. (lema en la portada) p. 2

maravedí

Non bene pro toto libertas venditur auro.

La libertad no se vende bien ni por todo el oro del mundo. p. 10

Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas Regumque turres.

La pálida muerte visita por igual las chozas del los pobres y las torres de los reyes.  Horacio p. 11

To read Horacio (Quintus Horatius Flaccus)

Donec eris felix, multos numberabis amicos.
Tempora si fuerint nubila, solus eris

Mientras seas dichoso, contarás con muchos amigos, pero si los tiempos se nublan, estarás solo. p. 11

“El río Tajo fue así dicho por un rey de las Españas; tiene su nacimiento en tal lugar y muere en el mar Océano, besando los muros de la famosa ciudad de Lisboa, y es opinión que tiene las arenas de oro.” p. 12

View of Toledo. El Greco. c. 1596–1600. Via Wikimedia.

See Cristóbal de Fonseca

Poetics by Aristotle

Cicero

Ad adolescentes by Basil of Caesarea

campo de Montiel (Comarca de la Mancha, entre Ciudad Real y Albacete donde se incia la acción)” p. 14

Mapa del Campo del Montiel histórico (fragmento de la antigua provincia de La Mancha, por Thomás López Pensionista, año 1765). Via Wikimedia.

décimas de cabo roto

“Si de llegarte a los bue-,
libro, fueres con lectu-,
no te dirá el boquirru-
que no pones bien los de-.” p. 15

“DON Belaianís DE GRECIA
A DON QUIJOTE DE LA MANCHA
… Mas, aunque sobre el cuerno de la luna
siempre se vio encumbrada mi ventura,
tus proezas envidio, ¡oh gran Quijote!” p. 19

DE SOLISDÁN
A DON QUIJOTE DE LA MANCHA
“Personaje desconocido, ya su nombre se deba a una errata o a confusión de Cervantes, ya se trate de un pseudónimo o anagrama.” p. 23

“En resolución, él se enfrascó tanto en su lectura que se le pasaban las noches leyendo de claro en claro, y los días de turbio en turbio; y así, del poco dormir y del mucho leer, se le secó el celebro de manera que vino a perder el juicio.” p. 29-30

To Read La Chanson de Roland Cancion de Roldán

Mort de Roland. Jean Fouquet. 1455-1460. Via Wikimedia.

****”no sólo se había contentado con llamarse “Amadís” a secas, sino que añadió el nombre de su reino y patria, por hacerla famosa, y se llamó “Amadís de Gaula”, así quiso, como buen caballero, añadir el suyo el nombre de la suya y llamarse “don Quijote de la Mancha”” p. 32

alcaide

 

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Sodom_and_Gomorrah

To Read (20th Century)

James Baldwin (US) |

Notes of a Native Son, The Fire Next Time, No Name in the Street, The Devil Finds Work  

Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina)|

Historia universal de la infamia, Ficciones, El Aleph.

 R. K. Narayan (India)|

Swami and Friends, The Bachelor of Arts, The English Teacher. See his works on mythology/religion (Gods, Demons and Others, The Ramayana) see list of works.

Graham Greene (England)|

The Comedians, The Heart of the Matter, A Burnt-Out Case, The Quiet American, The End of the AffairThe Ministry of Fear,  Our Man in Havana, Monsignor Quixote 

Robertson Davies (Canada)|

The Salterton Trilogy, The Cornish Trilogy, The “Toronto Trilogy”

Giorgio Bassani (Italia)|

The Garden of the Finzi-Continis

Mordechai Richler (Canada)|

The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz, Barney’s Version, Solomon Gursky Was Here

Brian Moore (Northern Ireland/Canada)|

Judith Hearne, The Emperor of Ice-Cream, Black Robe 

Evelyn Waugh (England)|

Decline and Fall, A Handful of Dust, Brideshead Revisited, Sword of Honour

Nicolas Poussin, The Dance to The Music of Time, 1640. Wallace Collection, London. Via Wikimedia.

Anthony Powell (England)|

A Dance to the Music of Time

John Martin, The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, 1852. Via Wikimedia.

Marcel Proust (France)|

In Search of Lost Time

Robert Musil (Austria)|

The Man Without Qualities

Joyce in Zurich, c. 1918. Via Wikiemdia.

James Joyce (Ireland)|

Ulysses, Finnegan’s Wake, Dubliners,  A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

Simone de Beauvoir (France)|

The Second SexShe Came to Stay, The Mandarins

Bertolt Brecht (Germany)|

Threepenny Novel, Drums in the NightThe Modern Theatre Is the Epic Theatre    

Wole Soyinka (Nigeria)|

Aké: The Years of Childhood, Death and the King’s Horseman, The Lion and the Jewel  

Jean Cocteau (France)|

Les Enfants Terribles, Les Parents Terribles, Beauty and the Beast, Orpheus 

Jacques Prévert (France)|

Les Enfants du Paradis, Paroles (wrote scenarios and dialogues for films. See list)

Toni Morrison (US)|

Beloved, Song of Solomon, Sula, The Bluest Eye

Italo Calvino (Italia)|

Invisible Cities, If on a winter’s night a travelerOur Ancestors trilogy, Cosmicomics

Leonardo Sciascia (Italia)|

Una storia semplice, The Day of the Owl, To Each His Own. See films: Open Doors (1990), Cadaveri Eccellenti (1976) and Il giorno della civetta

Cesare Pavese (Italia)|

The Moon and the Bonfires, see translated poems.

Natalia Ginzburg (Italia)|

L’inserzione, Family sayings (Lessico famigliare),  Caro Michele (film Caro Michele, 1976)

Georges Simenon (Belgium)|

Creator of detective Jules Maigret. Maigret and the Yellow Dog, Dirty Snow, Red Lights 

Milan Kundera (Czech)|

The Unbearable Lightness of Being, The Joke,The Book of Laughter and Forgetting

Chinua Achebe (Nigeria) |

Things Fall Apart,No Longer at Ease, Arrow of God, A Man of the People, Anthills of the Savannah, An Image of Africa (lecture on Heart of Darkness) 

Muriel Spark (Scotland)|

The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, The Mandelbaum Gate, The Driver’s Seat, Memento Mori

Philip Roth (US)|

The Ghost Writer,American Pastoral, Sabbath’s Theater

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Approaching a City | Edward Hopper

On Edward Hopper by Mark Strand from The New York Review of Books | Article

“something that is not there at the outset but reveals itself slowly, and then completely, having traveled an arduous route during which vision and image come together,”

“By the time the gas station appears on canvas in its final form it has ceased being just a gas station. It has become Hopperized. It possesses something it never had before Hopper saw it as a possible subject for his painting. And for the artist, the painting exists, in part, as a mode of encountering himself.”

“With the uncertainty under which the painter labors, extended periods of doubt, it is a wonder that he can ever be free of anxiety or finish a work. Even the prodigiously talented Picasso needed constant reassurance. ¶ One of the ways Hopper dealt with his lack of certainty was to make many preparatory drawings for each painting;”

“It was not that he needed to be sure how to paint a sugar dispenser of salt shaker as in Nighthawks (1942), but that they should become his. ¶ This absorption of the outer world into his inner world could only be accomplished through a protracted ritual of drawing and redrawing, slight adjustments here and there adding up to imaginative ownership and psychic freedom.”

“Again and again, words like “loneliness” or “alienation” are used to describe the emotional character of his paintings.”

“It was thrilling to suddenly go underground, travel in the dark, and be delivered to the masses of people milling about in the cavernous terminal.”

Read: Mark W. Turner essay comparing “the wall in Melville’s Bartleby the Scrivener and Hopper’s walls.

See:

New York Movie (1939) (at MoMa)

Nighthawks (1942) [at Art Institute of Chicago]

Approaching a City (1946) [Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.]

Morning Sun (1952) [Columbus Museum of Art, Georgia]

geometry-of-design-DSC_8572

Geometry of Design (II)

Elam, Kimberly. Geometry of Design: Studies in Proportion and Composition. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2001. Print.

See Fibonacci number

Golden section square construction Method p. 24

square-construction

AB         AC
—-   =   —–
AC          CB

A C B
|——————-|———|

“The golden section rectangle is unique in that when subdivided its reciprocal is a smaller proportional rectangle.” p. 25

Golden Section Spiral construction. p. 25

620/377 = 1.61803 Golden Section. p. 29

Golden Section Triangle and Ellipse p. 30

Golden Section Proportion of the Star Pentagram p. 31

Root 2 Rectangle Construction (√2)  p. 34

Hambidge Fig. 10 showing construction of “root rectangles. 1920. from Dynamic symmetry: the Greek vase. Via Wikimedia.

Root 2 Rectangle Construction. Circle Method p. 35

DIN System of Paper Proportioning A1-A5

“Root 2 rectangles possess the special property of being endlessly subdivided by proportionally smaller rectangles. It is for this reason that the root 2 rectangle is the basis for the European DIN (Deutsche Industrie Normen), a system of paper sizes.” p. 36

Root 3 rectangle p. 38

Root 4 Rectangle p. 40.

Lacey Davis Caskey – Geometry of Greek Vases: Attic Vases in the Museum of Fine Arts Analysed According to the Principals of Proportion Discovered by Jay Hambidge. Via Wikimedia

See The Modulor by Le Corbusier

Le Corbusier: “the composition of of works of art is governed by by rules; these rules may be conscious methods, pointed and subtle, or they may be commonplace rules, tritely applied. They may also be implied by the creative instinct of the artist, a manifestation of an intuitive harmony,”  p. 43

See Jules Cheret and Star Pentagram proportions.

Hippodrome, Leona Dare, 1883. Via wikimedia.

See Belle Époque

See Bauhaus typeface.

See Oskar Schlemmer

1932 Schlemmer Treppenszene anagoria. Via Wikimedia.

See East Coast poster by Tom Purvis

Designed by Tom Purvis and believed to feature his son with a Meccano. Via Wikimedia.

Circles aligned in Wagon -Bar Poster by A.M. Cassandre, 1932.

А.М. Кассандр (1901 — 1968) Via Wikimedia.

See Constructivism

‘Proun Vrashchenia’ by El Lissitzky, 1919. Wikimedia.

See Die Neue Typographie (1928) by Jan Tschichold

Root 2 rectangles and circles in proportion p. 73

Type construction p. 74

See Max Bill

See Inge Druckrey

See Bruno Monguzzi

Le Corbusier (from Modulor, 1949):

“The regulating lines do not bring in any poetic or lyrical ideas; they do not inspire the theme of the work; they are not creative; they merely establish a balance.” p. 101.

“Biology, geometry, and art are taught as separate subjects. The content area of each that is congruent to the other is often neglected and the student is left to make the connections on their own. In addition, art and design are commonly viewed as intuitive endeavors and expressions of personal inspirations.” p. 101

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